Growing Pocket Guide DEMO – (O-Z)

Pocket guide to Growing Cannabis from Seed to Harvest

Simple and quick find answers to all commonly asked questions by topics from A to Z

Price: $19.90

O

OG Kush

Varieties of the Afghan OG Kush family produce very small amounts of crop yield compared to any other cannabis strain. Most elite varieties of cannabis are hybrids and contain both sativa and Indica genes. Pure varieties can also be found, but much less frequently. The quality of a particular plant is influenced by the ratio of Indica and sativa in the genotype. Both types of cannabis are valuable in their own way and there is a grower for each variety.

P

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into organic substances, which are synthesized when exposed to light, with chlorophyll involvement.

PAR PPF PPFD

PAR is the part of solar radiation reaching plants in the range from 400 to 700 nm and used by plants for photosynthesis. This part of the spectrum corresponds to the region of visible radiation.

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pH

It is the acidity of the solution (pH), which is the main condition in determining the availability of nutrients for plants.

It is a pH indicator characterizing the concentration of active hydrogen ions in water. For convenience, a special indicator has been introduced, called pH, which represents the logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions, taken with the opposite sign- pH = -log [H +]. pH varies in the range from 0 to 14 units and it should be remembered that a change in pH by 1 unit is a tenfold change in the acidic properties of a solution! To put it simply, the pH value is determined by the quantitative ratio of H + and OH- ions in water, which are formed during the dissociation of water. If the water contains a lower content of free hydrogen ions (pH> 7) compared with OH- ions, then the water will have an alkaline reaction; while with an increased content of H + ions (pH <7), it is acidic. In perfectly pure distilled water, in which no gases are dissolved, these ions will balance each other out. In such cases, the water is neutral and pH = 7.

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Photons

A Photon is a unit of light energy measurement. It influences photosynthesis, activating plant cells for subsequent division and growth. The unit for measuring the number of photons that are needed for full growth is called Watts PAR.

PPM

PPM shows how many dissolved substances there are in water.

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Potassium (K)

Potassium is an osmotic active element involved in the turgor regulation of plant cells. Most plants have a high content of potassium, although only a very small number of it is found in cellular structures in a bound state. This is a typically mobile element; membranes of many cells are easily permeable to potassium. This is true, for example, for stop cells that stop the stomata (because of turgor, they control the opening and closing of stomata), as well as for motor cells that regulate the daily movement of the leaves. It is also known that potassium activates several important enzymes, although it has never been isolated as an integral part of a particular enzyme system.

Pruning

Cut a leaf on each node in a staircase pattern as soon as the first cinquefoil leaves appear. This stimulates lateral growth increasing it by 80%, thus increasing the yield. The right time to cut the top is when 4–5 pairs of leaves appear, you should use the FIM technique, leaving about 20% of the buds intact. Pruning will allow you to get at least 2 new fruiting stems. With the proper use of FIM technology, you can get up to 5 new shoots (some get 8). Trimming the top of the head gives the lower branches time to grow, making them closer to the light source. With proper training and other manipulations, you can make these giant plants grow horizontally, effectively reducing the overall height of your garden by more than 50%. Thus, you can bring the lamp as close as possible to all the places of bud formation. You will get more high-quality buds when a lot of fruit shoots are located very close to the source of light, in contrast to small shaded buds, trapped under a dense canopy of leaves, which will never fully develop.

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Phytochrome

It is a photoreceptor, a blue-green pigment that exists in two interconverting forms. One absorbs red light (λ ~ 660 nm), while the other – far red light (λ ~ 730 nm). Having absorbed the light, phytochrome passes from one form to another. This pigment plays an important role in flowering, the sprouting of seeds, size and shape regulation, the number of leaves, and chlorophyll synthesis.

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is mainly a structural component of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, and it is part of the phospholipids, which are lipoid substances that play an essential role in the structure of membranes. Therefore, a lack of phosphorus is a great danger to plants, as it prevents the formation of new genetic material in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as the formation of new membranes around the cell and its various organelles. Phosphorus is directly involved in all stages of energy transfer in the cell, since ATP and its analogues consist of three phosphates associated with the nucleoside. Although phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and sulfur perform other functions in the cell, the structural functions of these elements described above dominate.

R

Root

Hydrogel is a material based on polyacrylamide and is used for plant maintenance, rooting cuttings, and seed germination. It is produced in the form of dry powder or granules and creates optimal conditions for root formation because of a good penetration of air between the granules.

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RH

During the vegetative growth period, cannabis grows best at a relative humidity of 55% -65% RH. Humidity of 55–65% is necessary at the vegetative stage right up to the end of the second week of bloom.

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S

Spiders

Night temperature should be no less than 60 ° F (16 ° C), if it is less, then the plants may get stressed. Try to avoid temperature fluctuations: if one night is 60 ° F (16 ° C), and another 75 ° F (24 ° C), stress is also possible. Monitor day and night temperatures throughout the entire grow cycle.

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Seedlings

Seedlings stretch because of a lack of light. In addition, they also need a light breeze. Plants also stretch but this is because of high humidity.

Some general tips on lighting: Do not “wake up” plants by turning up the light during night time! The more lightplants receive, the more water they need. If the tops and edges of the leaves near the lamp curl – it means that the lamp is heating them too much. If there is a window in the room with the plants – close it so as not to disrupt the photoperiod. The ceiling, floor and walls of the room should be painted white to reduce the loss of light. Do not increase the length of daylight after the start of blooming! To improve the lighting of the lower parts of the bushes, you can use additional lamps on the walls of the room.

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Spectrum

The most numerous pigment – chlorophyll – absorbs red and blue light most effectively. Auxiliary pigments such as carotenoids and xanthophylls absorb a certain amount of green and blue color and transfer it to the reaction center of photosynthesis, while most of the green color is reflected.

Soil

Use soils with a low total water holding capacity! The packaging should say it. Moist, dense soil can damage the roots of a plant because it needs breathing air. Excessively dry soils will dehydrate too quickly, so they will have to be watered more often so that the plant doesn’t dry, and this will lead to a rapid depletion of nutrients in the soil. Don’t buy heavy, dense soil, or soil which is too soft and airy. The soil should be of medium softness and weight. Don’t create a “swamp”  watering too often, the plant must have time to absorb all the water from the soil; during drying periods air must penetrate between the soil particles letting the roots breathe.

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Sex

The sex of the plant is determined by the “pre-flowers” that usually appear after the 4th week of vegetative growth.

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Stress

If you are using the 24/0 mode, you can do the transfer to 12/12 by reducing the light period either sharply or gradually. The plants will not become stressed.

Sulfur(S)

It builds blocks of hormones, vitamins, including vitamin B1, is a necessary element in many cells and seeds of plants, and stabilizes the pH of the water. Essentially all soil, river, and lake water contains sulphate. It participates in the synthesis of proteins and is part of amino acids, cysteine, thiamine, which are the building blocks for proteins. It is an important element in the production of oils and fragrances, as well as in the plant’s respiratory system, the synthesis and destruction of fatty acids. As a result, the combination of concentrated calcium and concentrated sulfur will result in crude, insoluble gypsum (calcium sulfate), which will fall to the bottom of the tank in the form of sediment. Sulfur is a component of several amino acids (cysteine, cysteine, and methionine) – the structural units from which proteins are ultimately formed. Although plant cells need a relatively small amount of sulfur, almost all of it performs an important structural function. Without sulfur-containing amino acids, many important cell proteins could not be synthesized. Sulfur is present in glutathione, a widely distributed substance that is believed to play a role in redox reactions due to its ability to reversibly convert from the reduced, or sulfhydryl, form (-SH) to the oxidized, or disulfide, form (-SS– ). The formation of disulfide bridges (-SS-) adjacent parts of large proteins of molecules is important for their final shape and stability. Sulfur is also a component of coenzyme A and thiamine (vitamin B1). Many fertilizers contain sulfur in one form or another, so it is rarely in short supply. Gardeners prefer pure sulfur compounds, such as magnesium sulfate, because they are better mixed with food in water

Size/ Speed

The size of cannabis plants at the vegetation stage greatly influences the final yield as large plants produce more!

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Sativa

Sativa is the best treatment for psychological trauma.

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Silicon (Si)

Silicon affects stalk strength, lodging resistance, flowering force and ovary energy. It increases the absorption of phosphorus by plants due to the increased solubility of ground phosphates under the action of silicic acid. Silicon is present in the fibers of the mechanical tissues of all plants and it gives strength to the supporting skeleton. The average silicon content in plants is 0.02–0.15% (of mass), and 0.1–3% in hay.

The harder the stalk of a plant is, the more silicon its ash has.

T

THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol is the best-known cannabinoid that is present in any form of cannabis. THC is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and it stimulates the psyche, acts as a muscle relaxant and an anti-inflammatory agent. Sativa varieties of cannabis are richer in THC cannabinoid, which causes the major effects of sativa – stimulation of brain activity and creativity. THC is the primary psychoactive component in cannabis, it imitates the function of the hormone anandamide, a neurotransmitter produced by the human body. The effect of cannabis is caused by the fact that THC binds CB1 receptors in the brain. THC has about the same effect on CB1 and CB2 receptors. It relieves pain, inflammation of the nerves and promotes the growth of nerves. Studies have also shown its ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. CBD is predominant in cannabis varieties with a low THC content.

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Temperature

Night temperature should be no less than 60 ° F (16 ° C), if it is less, then the plants may get stressed. Try to avoid temperature fluctuations: if one night is 60 ° F (16 ° C), and another 75 ° F (24 ° C), stress is also possible. Monitor day and night temperatures throughout the entire grow cycle.

Treatment

Dilute 2 tsp of Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) into 3.7 L of water. For best results, spray the foliage with a 2% Epsom salt solution. If the top of the plant has been affected by magnesium deficiency, it will turn green again. Then the green color will begin to return to the plant top down. Continue applying Epsom salt until the symptoms disappear. Regular addition of Epsom salt isn’t necessary if the fertilizer you are using contains magnesium. Spraying the leaves of a plant with Epsom salt is very effective when you need quick treatment. Another option is to use magnesium sulfate monohydrate instead of Epsom salt.

Transplant

It’s very easy to transplant a small seedling: take a large spoon, place it into the ground 8 inches (2-4 cm) from the stem and 1.6 inch (5-7 cm) in depth, push the end of the spoon as a lever. Place the resulting clump of soil in a new pot (the soil in it should be wet) so that the stem is at the same depth. Water it well. Remember! Transplanting is a big shock for a plant, it slows the growth, so try to replant once per cycle. To minimize the shock that a plant experiences after transplantation, it’s better to do it after 5–7 days into its life while it has a small main root, which grows very quickly, but can easily be damaged later.

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Trichomes

Trichomes are a kind of ampoule with a psychoactive substance, which cover the surface of bud clusters and the nearby small leaves (trim), and, in cases of the most resinous cannabis (hashish varieties) they also cover fan leaves and even stems.

TDS

TDS stands for “total dissolved solids”. The easiest way to maintain a nutrient solution in a proper condition is TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) measurement, TDS is measured in ppm (parts per million). 1ppm corresponds to a concentration of 1 mg / l solute. Measurements are also often carried out using a conductivity meter, which measures EC (Electrical Conductivity) in units called Siemens. In fact, both of them measure electrical conductivity, but the TDS meter converts the measured results ​​to ppm using the built-in table.

 

U

UV-A and UV-B

UV-A is not a very good option when supplying cannabis with ultraviolet light. If there is no UV-B in the spectrum, the chemical processes in plants do not receive the necessary energy from UV-A alone, which penetrates long distances but has less energy. As a result, there will be more precursor substances in trichomes with UV-A, rather than THC itself. UV-B ultraviolet should be particularly intense, or, alternatively, a medium wave ultraviolet at 280-315nm.

V

Vegetative period

Use more blue light. 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness (18/6) is the standard light schedule for vegetative growth. Any schedule for more than 14 hours of light will maintain the vegetative stage.

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W

Watering

Cannabis does not like being overwatered. Obviously, it is necessary to water the soil abundantly only in the first days, but then you should greatly reduce the amount of water – by half compared to the previous amount.

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Z

Zinc

It is one of the scarcest elements in arid climates and alkaline soils. Zinc interacts with manganese and magnesium to improve the same functions of enzymes. It promotes the formation of chlorophyll and helps to prevent its shortage. It is the main catalyst for the production of most enzymes and auxins, and thus plays a key role in the growth of the stem. It is the determining factor in the production of sugars and proteins. Zinc is a component of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the hydration of CO2 in H2CO3. This enzyme probably plays an important role in maintaining reserves of potential CO2 for photosynthesis, since H2CO3 easily dissociates to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) or free CO2. In addition, zinc as a cofactor is involved in the indelicacies acid plant hormone synthesis from the amino acid tryptophan. In the absence of zinc, plants grow stunted, with poorly developed apical dominance.