Growing Pocket Guide DEMO – (A-N)

Pocket guide to Growing Cannabis from Seed to Harvest

Simple and quick find answers to all commonly asked questions by topics from A to Z

B

Buds

Everything possible should be done to grow cannabis plants that will produce no seeds. Today it may seem strange, but until the 1960s, it wasn’t thought that the psychoactivity of cannabis depends on whether it produces seeds or not. So, if you want your cannabis to be the most powerful, don’t grow male and female plants together, and don’t expose female plants to stress, so that they do not pollinate themselves and all their neighbors.

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Bloom

Excess nitrogen can slow down flowering. There is no doubt that the use of fertilizer for plants rich in nitrogen, as well as a mixture of ammonium nitrate can slow down flowering, especially if the level of phosphorus is quite low.

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Burns

Spraying plant leaves under bright lighting can cause a magnifying glass effect, which results in white, yellow or burned spots that can be confused with nutrient-related problems. Some sprays also cause chemical reactions

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Boron (B)

Boron forms complexes with sugars and related substances, its function may include long-distance transport of sugars in the plant. A number of trace elements, although necessary in small amounts for growth, become highly toxic in excessive doses. These include Mn, Cu, and, if its concentrations is high, Fe.

C

Chlorophyll

It is a green pigment found in plants, essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb carbon dioxide from the air and to convert solar energy into chemical energy, such as carbohydrate molecules (sugars and starch). The result of photosynthesis is the release of oxygen.

Cannabinoids

The most sought-after cannabinoid for patients using medical marijuana is CBD, the element associated with sedative and potent analgesic effects.

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Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is essential for cell production and growth and is necessary to ensure the permeability of the membrane and cell integrity, which in turn ensures the normal movement of nitrogen and sugars. It helps enzymes build strong cells and root walls, and must be present at every growing tip of the root. The main function is the quantitative inclusion in the structure of the middle plate of the cell wall. Calcium associated with acidic components of the gelatinous pectin of the middle plate forms an insoluble salt. Therefore, the introduction of Ca into the cell wall leads to the solidification of its semi-liquid structure. Calcium also plays an important role in regulating the selective permeability of the cell membrane. When growing plants in an environment with a lack of Ca, the cell membranes begin to “leak” and lose their effectiveness as barriers to the free diffusion of ions.

Compost

It’s an excellent fertilizer that improves soil structure and provides nutrients at the same time.

CBD CBN CBC CBG

Cannabidiol is the best-known cannabinoid associated with the sedative effect of cannabis. A CBD is a substance that basically negates all the psychoactive effects of THC. This means that cannabis varieties with a high content of CBD very rarely cause the effect on brain activity, but they contribute to good muscle relaxation. These varieties are prescribed in the treatment of pain, anxiety, stress and depression, and reduce nausea, prevent cramps, slow the growth of cancer cells without being psychoactive – they do not alter human consciousness, nor directly affect the CB1 receptors. CBD prevents the activation of these receptors by other substances, thus “protecting” them.

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Chelates

Chelates are complex organic compounds that are found in living organisms and soil and the advantages of chelated micronutrients are its chemical stability in a wider pH range than that of sulphate microelements, its high digestibility by plants, its compatibility with most used fertilizers and pesticides, and its complete solubility in water. Chelated trace elements are used as fertilizer in agricultural and ornamental crops on various types of soil in open and protected areas. They’re designed to compensate for the deficiency of microelements and can be used for the root and leaf top dressing of plants. It is in the form of chelates that all living beings use metals as they have a number of advantages over the soluble salts of microelements that were used previously. Plants assimilate them much better and more efficiently, since usual salts of trace elements in the soil can cross-react and form unassimilated compounds. Chelates don’t enter into such reactions, and also don’t bind with the soil. As a result, if conventional trace elements are absorbed by plants by 30–40%, then trace elements in chelate form are absorbed by up to 90%. To put it simply, chelate form is a type of macro and microelement that the body easily assimilates. Chelates are used not only in the plant world, but also in the animal world when creating vitamins and drugs.

Clones

The clone rockets into a state of vigorous growth, which stops when the plant reaches its minimum height within its genetic program, and then begins to bloom.

Chlorine (Cl)

Chlorine in the form of chloride is the basis of photosynthesis and cell division in roots and foliage. It also increases the osmotic pressure in the cells, under which the stoma opens and closes to regulate the movement of moisture in plant tissues. Moving together with potassium, it maintains electro neutrality in the cells. However, the chloride content rarely reaches as high a level as the potassium content. Thus, chloride is obviously involved in the regulation of turgor in cases where it is available, but isn’t absolutely necessary for this process. The significance of chlorine for plants has only been clarified relatively recently, after experiments were conducted in which all the air in the experimental greenhouses was filtered to remove the slightest trace of atmospheric chlorine. It transpired that such trace amounts of chlorine are sufficient for the favorable growth of most plants.

Curing

For curing, containers with buds should be stored in a cool dark place, possibly in a refrigerator (not a freezer !!!). Containers must be hermetic. The longer the buds cure, the better, for both taste and effect. On average, this process takes a month, it can take longer if you keep them in the fridge. After a month, you can put the buds into the freezer which finishes the curing process and prevents the aging of the buds; the smoke of the cured buds will be soft and pleasant, and the effect will last longer. None of the tricks at the cultivation stage will give such results as proper drying and curing of the harvest.

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Candela (cd)

The intensity of light emitted by a candle is approximately equal to one candela (lat. Candela is a candle), which is why this unit of measurement used to be called “candle”, now this name is obsolete and is not used. Previously, the candela was defined as the intensity of light emitted by a black body perpendicular to the surface with an area of 1/60 sq. cm at the melting point of platinum (2042.5 K). In the modern definition, the coefficient 1/683 is chosen so that the new definition matches the old one.

Copper (Cu)

Copper is a component of some oxidative enzymes, such as tyrosinase and ascorbate oxidase, which oxidize the amino acid tyrosine and vitamin C (ascorbic acid), respectively. Copper is a component of many enzymes and proteins. Being necessary in small quantities, copper contributes to carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen concentration, as well as the formation of proteins and sugars.

CO2

Plants need CO2 and there is enough in our atmosphere to support the growth of buds, though proper ventilation must be taken into account when growing indoors. The air in the room should be extracted at least every five minutes to ensure a constant supply of fresh CO2-enriched air or, alternatively, use additional CO2 (for example in cylinders) at a higher temperature and with more nutrients added.

D

Drying

When harvesting, the plant should be cut as low as possible, and hung upside down for drying in the growbox. Humidity should remain at a constant 50-60% because the buds can rot when the humidity is high, and they can dry out too fast if the humidity is low, which will adversely affect the taste.

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Death

Too much water, despite the fact that water is vital for cannabis.

DLI

The amount of light received by a plant every day is mol / m² / d.. For example, PPFD is 200 μmol / m² / s and if we assume that there are 16 hours of light per day, then on this day DLI is 200 μmol / m² / s x16h x3600s = 11520000 μmol / m² / d = 11.52 mol / m² / d. If a plant needs to accumulate, for instance, 1000 mol from sprouting to harvest, then it needs to be given 10mol each day, thus 100 days are needed before harvesting.

E - F - G

EC

This is an indicator of how many ions of mineral substances are contained in an aqueous solution. The EC meter passes electrical current through the solution and assesses the resistance.

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Foliar feeding

If there is a problem with the soil, foliar feeding provides plants with nutrients until the problem is completely solved. It prevents clones from excessive yellowing. It allows a sick plant to be fed quickly. Constant overuse of phosphorus to boost flowering.

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Growing medium

This is what plant roots grow in. It can be a wide range of materials: mineral wool Agros, vermiculite, coco coir, coco peat, expanded clay, perlite, gravel, or sand. A mix of different substrates is often used. A growing medium is an inert substance that does not supply plants with any nutrients, all nutrition comes from the nutrient solution, a mixture of water and mineral fertilizers. The choice of a growing medium depends on the type of hydroponic system. 

H

Humidity (RH)

During the vegetative growth period, cannabis grows best at a relative humidity of 55% -65% RH. Humidity of 55–65% is necessary at the vegetative stage right up to the end of the second week of bloom.

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Hydrogen peroxide

You won’t need H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), unless you have failed to prepare the right solution. If you keep the container temperature at 20–22 С and if it is light-proof, there will be no problems with algae, and the plants will feel good in such conditions.

 

Harvest

Light intensity (aka voltage) influences the brightness of the lamps: the higher the intensity, the brighter the lamp. With this equation in mind, we can get more high-quality harvest per single Watt of energy.

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Hydroponics

Aeroponics (aeroponic culture) means growing plants without an aggregate medium. Plants are grown suspended, while their roots are dangling in the air. In the chamber where the roots are located, there is a spray bottle, which irrigates the roots with a nutrient solution in the form of the smallest drops at a certain time interval. The irrigation interval, which is usually several minutes, is set based on the time of absorption and evaporation of the nutrient solution. It is very important to ensure a fail-safe maintenance of high humidity in the chamber with the roots. In the event of a power cut, or if the timer or pump breaks, the roots dry quickly. Recently, ultrasonic mist generators have become widespread and it is possible to use them as a sprayer, but thus far there is little information about their use for growing cannabis.

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I

Indica / Indica vs Sativa

Indica gives a more classical and familiar to everyone state, one that is often associated with the effect of cannabis in general. The effect of indica cannabis is more medical, sedative, that is, it mostly affects your body. It soothes, calms you down, helps to cope with a variety of physical problems, such as muscle soreness, cramps, pain in the joints. Indica can help to overcome insomnia and return a full appetite. Indica stone-effect relaxation cannot be compared with anything: it will remove any anxiety and relieve any moral or physical fatigue.

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Iron (Fe)?

Iron is the basis of a system of enzymes and electron transport during photosynthesis, plant respiration, and chlorophyll production. It promotes absorption of energy released by sugars. As a catalyst for the production of chlorophyll, it’s needed to reduce the formation and absorption of nitrates and sulfates. It gives soil a color from brown to red depending on the concentration in one place or another, and it’s difficult for plants to absorb. Iron is a component of many important enzymes, including cytochromes – carriers of electrons involved in the process of respiration – as well as oxidative enzymes peroxidase and catalase. In all these enzymes, iron is present in the prosthetic group in the form of a heme (an analogue of chlorophyll), in which the central iron atom is linked to four pyrrole rings joined into a large cyclic structure. Iron is also essential for enzymes involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll. In addition, it’s a component of ferredoxin, a compound that functions as a carrier of electrons in the process of photosynthesis. Iron deficiency causes deep chlorosis in the developing leaves, which can turn completely white.

L

Leaves

It happens because of a magnesium (Mg) deficiency. Cannabis consumes a lot of magnesium, and its deficiency is a frequent occurrence, especially in acidic soils (pH below 7). Magnesium deficiency often occurs when growing indoors.

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LIGHTING

It causes a greater need for water, nutrients and CO2. You must use the right light spectrum and distribute the maximum amount of light to your plants. It is very important to place the lamps as close as possible to the plants.

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Lamps

If the lamps are too close to the plant, the tops can curl, dry and look burned, as if it’s a nutrient-related problem. Your hand should not feel the heat after a minute over the tops of the plant. Raise the lamp and / or aim the fan at the hot areas. The temperature should be not more than  27 ° C or 29 ° C if you’ve added an extra amount of CO2.

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Lumens

The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux. SI is a system of units of physical quantities, (fr. Le Systeme International d’Unit? S, SI). One lumen is equal to the luminous flux with luminous intensity equal to one candela. One candela is equal to 4 lumens. The lumen does not take into account the effectiveness of the reflector or lens and therefore is not a direct parameter for estimating the brightness or useful performance of a lamp’s beam. A wide light beam can have the same lumen value as a narrowly focused one. Lumens cannot be used to determine the intensity of a beam, because the lumen rating includes all the diffused useless light.

M

MISTAKES

1. Overwatering kills cannabis. Water when the soil is several inches dry. When planting, you need to know the dry weight of the plant. Then water it thoroughly until water flows out of the drainage holes. Weigh it again. When the pot weighs about the same as before the watering, it is time to water again.

2. Overfeeding the plants. As Mr Saul says, newbies rarely underdo anything. When everything fails, follow the instructions on the bottle of fertilizer.

3. Analyzing the growth process too scrupulously. Don’t try to find a treatment for each yellow leaf. Often adding dressing to a substrate causes more problems than it solves.

4. React if something goes wrong, but be careful with treatments.

5. Don’t touch the germinating seeds, it kills them. It can take a seed up to 10 days to germinate. The paper towel method is not recommended because you have to touch the seeds by moving them from the towel to the substrate.

6. Fertilize after the first two jagged leaves appear. Start with a quarter of what the packaging says, and gradually increase it.

7. If the leaves suddenly start to curl or bend, water the plants with clean filtered water for several days

8. Don’t fertilize your plants every time you water them! For soil, the usual pattern of irrigation is as follows: we fertilize with a one-hundred percent solution, we water with 50–25 percent. This will prevent excessive salt deposits, burns of leaves and roots.

9. Do not water with 100% solution, if the substrate is too dry – it can cause a burning of the roots.

10. As a precaution, wash the plants with plenty of clean water every 2–4 weeks.

11. If you prefer to give the plant a reasonable amount of nutrients, use organic compounds for soil with a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, or any slowly released fertilizer with micronutrients.

12. Always circulate fresh air even during night cycles. All indoor air must be renewed every 5–10 minutes.

13. Do not harvest too early. 25% of the weight is formed in the last two weeks of bloom.

14. Begin harvesting when the plants stop growing completely and the white pistils turn at least 50–75% brown.

15. A common mistake is when the plant has reached the flowering stage, to megadose it with phosphorus fertilizers (10–60–10) and use this mixture for a long time, then no wonder that the plant begins to experience a shortage of nitrogen or other micronutrients demonstrating lower leaves shedding or chlorosis. The plant blooms in response to an increase in the duration of the night, and not because of nutrient mixtures with a high phosphorus content. Formula 10–60–10 is THE method for increasing the phosphorus content. The plant will take only what it needs and will fight for other elements that may be more important at that moment.

Mirrors

Mirrors are not recommended as a reflective coating. A mirror, before it is covered with an opaque varnish, has an amalgam layer which is semitransparent, about 60%! Thus, photons will get stuck in that opaque varnish layer.

µmol

Micromoles / sec or micromoles / m2 sec is the number of photons emitted or falling on the surface of a plant from a particular source. It is usually used to compare light sources with different spectral characteristics, since sources with different spectra emit different numbers of photons with the same radiation power. A 5W red 660 nm emits 5.5 µmol / s, blue 450 nm – 3.76 µmol / s, which is why the use of red LEDs is advantageous; they emit more photons.

Molybdenum (Mo)

Molybdenum is involved in the functioning of only those enzymes (nitrate reductase, nitrogenase) that catalyze the reduction or fixation of nitrogen. If reduced or organic nitrogen is applied under the plant, the need for molybdenum decreases or disappears altogether. Molybdenum enters the two major systems of enzymes in which nitrate is converted to ammonium and is necessary for plants in small doses. It is most active in roots and seeds.

Magnesium (Mg)

Excess magnesium in the soil isn’t usually harmful, but it can interfere with calcium intake. It’s rare and its effects are difficult to see with the naked eye. With a strong excess, magnesium conflicts with other nutrients, usually calcium, and especially in hydroponic nutrient solutions.

Manganese (Mn)

Manganese is involved in reducing the oxidation processes associated with photosynthetic electron transport. It activates the work of many enzymes and plays a crucial role in the membrane system of the chloroplast. Along with iron it contributes to the consumption of nitrogen in the production of chlorophylls.

N

Nutrients

The soil should contain 3 essential nutrients (NPP): N – Nitrogen, P – Phosphorus, P – Potassium.

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Nitrogen (N

Stunted growth. Short and thin shoots and stems. Small bud clusters. Weak foliage. Weak branching and weak tillering. Small, narrow leaves. Lightening and yellowing. A lack of nitrogen in plants can be found in all types of soil, especially in early spring, when, due to low soil temperature, the processes of mineralization and the formation of nitrates are weak. Signs of nitrogen deficiency appear very clearly at different stages of development. Yellowing of the lower leaves occurs when there is a lack of moisture in the soil, and also when the leaves age or die. When there is a lack of nitrogen, lightening and yellowing of the color begins with the veins and the adjacent part of the leaf blade; parts of the leaf that are distant from the veins may retain a light green color. The leaf yellowed because of a lack of nitrogen usually has no green veins. When leaves age, their yellowing begins with a part of the leaf blade located between the veins, while the veins and tissue around them still retain a green color. Some plants suffer from a general lightening of the leaves when applying potassium fertilizers, especially low-percentage ones (sylvinite, potash salt). In this case, there may be no suspension of plant growth, reduction of the formation of new shoots, thinning of the stems, and reduction of the size of young leaves, unlike when there is a lack of nitrogen. When there is nitrogen deficiency, the lightening of the color begins with the older, lower leaves that become yellow, orange and red. This color goes onto younger leaves and may occur on the leaf stalks. Leaves with a lack of nitrogen fall prematurely; the maturation of plants is accelerated.

Nanometers (nm)

A unit of light measurement is a wavelength, which is calculated in nanometers (nm).

1nm = one billionth of a meter.